Caesarea-Maritima.org: Documentation

TEI Encoding Manual for A Collection of Testimonia for Caesarea Maritima

Table of Contents

Overview

Standards and Controlled Vocabularies

TEI Header

<fileDesc>

<titleStmt>

<editionStmt>

<publicationStmt>

<seriesStmt>

<sourceDesc>

<encodingDesc>

<editorialDecl>

<classDecl>

<profileDesc

<creation>

<langUsage>

<textClass>

<revisionDesc>

Planned Revisions using <change type="planned"> (optional)

Components of the XML Description of the Testimonium

Overview

This module is based on the Srophé Corpus App

Each TEI file is an XML description of an ancient testimonium (attestation) referring to Caesarea Maritima or a sub-location in the site. Each file has a URI for the TEI XML file (eg. caesarea-maritima.org/testimonia/23/tei) and also a URI for the for the conceptual entity of the testimonium (caesarea-maritima.org/testimonia/23).

The <tei:teiHeader> element describes the XML file. The <tei:body> element describes the intellectual concept that is the testimonium. The primary exception to this distinction is that the <tei:profileDesc> in the header is also used to describe the conceptual text that is the testimonium.

Standards and Controlled Vocabularies

Authors of testimonia are identified with URIs from The Virtual International Authority File. When multiple VIAF URIs exist, preference has been given to VIAF record linked to the Library of Congress authority file. The only exception to this will be in preference for forms of names with disambiguating epithets, for example, “Luke the Evangelist” (https://viaf.org/viaf/305863610/) to identify the author of the book of Acts.

Geographic locations are identified with URIs from Pleiades: A Gazetteer of Past Places.

When possible, textual works have been cited using URNs according to the Distributed Text Services system. Additional identifiers have been adopted from the systems used by the Perseus Digital Library, Syriaca.org, and other relevant authority systems such as WorldCat Identities or OCLC numbers.

Bibliographic items will be defined using WorldCat Identities or OCLC numbers when practical. All citations will also have a local caesarea-maritima.org URI and a Zotero database identifier.

Dates will use ISO 8601 standard.

Languages will use ISO 639-1, 639-2, and 639-3 following best practices of the TEI guidelines.

The TEI Header

The <teiHeader> is a mandatory element of every TEI file, and it encodes important information about the process which created this file. Every <teiHeader> element contains a namespace declaration, a <fileDesc> element (information about the creation of a file), an <encodingDesc> element (editorial rules), a <profileDesc> element (non-bibliographic aspects of a text), and a <revisionDesc> element (history of revisions).

<fileDesc>

Each <fileDesc> element contains (in order) a <titleStmt>, an <editionStmt>, a <publicationStmt>, a <seriesStmt>, and a <sourceDesc>.

<titleStmt>

The purpose of the title statement <titleStmt> is not only to provide the title of the testimonium, but also to identify parties responsible for the creation of a file. The <titleStmt> must contain a <title> element which contains the title of the testimonium, with an @xml:lang attribute specifying the language of the title. The title for each individual testimonium record also has a @level with value "a" to distinguish it from the title of the entire project (i.e. Textual Evidence for Caesarea Maritima). The "a" value stands for analytic, which means that the title is part of a larger publication. Every testimonium entry should consist of the author of the text from which the testimonium is excerpted (using the VIAF-LOC headword), the title of that text, and a citation, using a canonical reference system, of the excerpted portion of the text from which the testimonium derives. The title of the work from which the testimonium is excerpted should itself be tagged with a <title> element of @level="m" to indicate that it is a monograph-level title. Thus, the <title> for Flavius Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews book 14, section 76 would be:

<title level="a" xml:lang="en">Flavius Josephus, <title level="m">Antiquities of the Jews</title> 14.76</title>

Note that the author is separated from the work title by a comma, and the work title from the cited range by a single space.

Every testimonium record should also have a title specifying that it is part of Textual Evidence for Caesarea Maritima, which should look as follows:

<title level="m" xml:lang="en">Textual Evidence for Caesarea Maritima</title>

The "m" value indicates that this level is monographic (at the level of the entire project).

The TEI guidelines recommend that the <titleStmt> element also indicate who is responsible for this TEI file. Since <author> is typically used for the author of a print or manuscript text which was then encoded in TEI, we avoid the use of the <author> element. Instead, we identify Vanderbilt University as the sponsoring institution, as follows:

<sponsor>Vanderbilt University</sponsor>

Next, the principal investigator for the project, in this case, Joseph L. Rife, is identified with the <principal> element:

<principal>Joseph L. Rife</principal>

The general editors for this domain of Caesarea-Maritima.org are then listed in successive <editor> elements, each with a @role attribute with value "general" and a @ref attribute which points to the @xml:id of the editor within the "editors.xml" document. The name of the general editors are contained within the <editor> element with @role="general". Other editors are listed with @role attributes further delineating their precise roles.

The following values can be used for the @role attribute:

  1. "creator": the main author responsible for the document;
  2. "technical": the person responsible for the creation of the XML encoding;
  3. "content-author": the person responsible for the content encoded in this document by another person;
  4. "contributor": a person who contributed some data but is not the main person responsible for the document.

There may be duplicates between general editors and editors labeled with the four roles above. So the editors for the place record for "Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 18.55-18.59" (https://caesarea-maritima.org/testimonia/10) would look as follows:

<editor role="general" ref="https://caesarea-maritima.org/documentation/editors.xml#jrife">Joseph L. Rife</editor>
<editor role="general" ref="https://caesarea-maritima.org/documentation/editors.xml#plieberman">Phillip I. Lieberman</editor>
<editor role="technical" ref="https://caesarea-maritima.org/documentation/editors.xml#dmichelson">David A. Michelson</editor>
<editor role="technical" ref="https://caesarea-maritima.org/documentation/editors.xml#wpotter">William L. Potter</editor>
<editor role="creator" ref="https://caesarea-maritima.org/documentation/editors.xml#jrife">Joseph L. Rife</editor>
<editor role="creator" ref="https://caesarea-maritima.org/documentation/editors.xml#bgardner">Bianca Gardner</editor>

Both the editors and other parties who are responsible for the creation of this TEI testimonium record are then identified individually in <respStmt> elements (<resp> stands for "responsibility"). The schema requires the record have at least one <respStmt> which would describe the contribution of the <editor role="creator">. Most records will have multiple <respStmt> elements, especially in cases where there were contributions made by persons who do not fall into the available @role values. The <respStmt> element contains the description of the responsibility wrapped in a <resp> element followed by the name of the responsible party contained in a <name> element. The <name> element should take a @ref attribute which points to the @xml:id of the editor within the "editors.xml" document. Additional participants in the creation of the file, for example by entering Greek or Latin text, can be given additional <respStmt> entries. It is our convention to order these <respStmt> elements so that, as can be seen in the example below, the latest phase of the project appears first and proceeds consecutively to the earliest phase of the project (e.g. "TEI encoding by" is the latest stage, therefore first <respStmt> while "Testimonia identified by" is the earliest stage, therefore last <respStmt>). In this case, the full <titleStmt> of the TEI file containing "Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 18.55-18.59" might look as follows:

<titleStmt>
    <title xml:lang="en" level="a">Flavius Josephus, <title level="m">Antiquities of the Jews</title> 18.55-18.59</title>
    <title level="m" xml:lang="en">Textual Evidence for Caesarea-Maritima</title>
    <sponsor>Vanderbilt University</sponsor>
    <principal>Joseph L. Rife</principal>
    <editor role="general" ref="https://caesarea-maritima.org/documentation/editors.xml#jrife">Joseph L. Rife</editor>
    <editor role="general" ref="https://caesarea-maritima.org/documentation/editors.xml#plieberman">Phillip I. Lieberman</editor>
    <editor role="technical" ref="https://caesarea-maritima.org/documentation/editors.xml#dmichelson">David A. Michelson</editor>
    <editor role="technical" ref="https://caesarea-maritima.org/documentation/editors.xml#wpotter">William L. Potter</editor>
    <editor role="creator" ref="https://caesarea-maritima.org/documentation/editors.xml#jrife">Joseph L. Rife</editor>
    <editor role="creator" ref="https://caesarea-maritima.org/documentation/editors.xml#bgardner">Bianca Gardner</editor>
    <respStmt>
        <resp>TEI encoding by</resp>
        <name ref="https://caesarea-maritima.org/documentation/editors.xml#wpotter">William L. Potter</name>
    </respStmt>
    <respStmt>
    <resp>Electronic text added by</resp>
        <name ref="https://caesarea-maritima.org/documentation/editors.xml#bgardner">Bianca
        Gardner</name>
    </respStmt>
    <respStmt>
        <resp>Testimonia identified by</resp>
        <name ref="https://caesarea-maritima.org/documentation/editors.xml#jrife">Joseph L. Rife</name>
    </respStmt>
</titleStmt>

<editionStmt>

The <editionStmt> allows the specification of an edition or version number. When a TEI file is first published online, that edition should be "1.0". Subsequent revisions may bump the revision number, either by a whole new version (i.e. to "2.0") or by a minor version (i.e. to "1.1"). This is encoded as follows:

<editionStmt>
       <edition n="1.0"/>
</editionStmt>

<publicationStmt>

The <publicationStmt> is where we identify the Caesarea City and Port Exploration Project as the entity responsible for publishing this information, indicate the date of the most recent edit, and identify the use license (Creative Commons CC-BY). The identification of Caesarea City and Port Exploration Project as the responsible entity is accomplished by an <authority> element:

<authority>Caesarea City and Port Exploration Project</authority>

The URI for this particular file, as distinct from the URI for the entity described by this record, is encapsulated in an <idno> element with @type="URI". In general the URI for this file will be generated by appending "/tei" to the URI for the entity described in this record. For the example of "Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 18.55-18.59" (testimonia/10), this looks as follows:

<idno type="URI">https://caesarea-maritima.org/testimonia/10/tei</idno>

The <license> element within the <availability> element is used to specify the Creative Commons CC-BY license under which this record is made available:

<availability>
    <licence target="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">
        <p>Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License.</p>
    </licence>
</availability>

Finally, the date of the record indicates its most recent modification, giving the current date within a <date> element. With the exception of the record URI and the date, the <publicationStmt> should be identical in all Caesarea-Maritima.org records. Here is a complete example for "Luke the Evangelist, Acts 10.1" (testomonia/67):

<publicationStmt>
    <authority>Ceasarea City and Port Exploration Project</authority>
    <idno type="URI">https://caesarea-maritima.org/testimonia/67/tei</idno>
    <availability>
        <licence target="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">
            <p>Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License.</p>
        </licence>
    </availability>
    <date>2020-03-30-04:00</date>
</publicationStmt>

<seriesStmt>

The <seriesStmt> element identifies testimonia records as part of the series of publications within Caesarea-Maritima.org: A Digital Archive. It consists of a <title> element, identifying Caesarea-Maritima.org: A Digital Archive as the series to which the TEI record belongs as well as <editor> elements of @role="general" to identify the general editors for Caesarea-Maritima.org. All testimonia records' <seriesStmt> should be identical. So, for example, the <seriesStmt> for "Luke the Evangelist, Acts 10.1" (testomonia/67) would be:

<seriesStmt>
    <title level="m" xml:lang="en">Caesarea-Maritima.org: A Digital Archive</title>
    <editor role="general" ref="https://caesarea-maritima.org/documentation/editors.xml#jrife">Joseph L. Rife</editor>
    <editor role="general" ref="https://caesarea-maritima.org/documentation/editors.xml#plieberman">Phillip I. Lieberman</editor>
</seriesStmt>

<sourceDesc>

The <sourceDesc> element is also a mandatory component of the <fileDesc> element. Its purpose is to indicate the source of the text which is encoded in this file, for library cataloging among other uses. For Textual Evidence for Caesarea Maritima, which is not marking up text from a source, the option of indicating that this TEI is "born digital," should be used:

<sourceDesc>
 	<p>Born digital.</p>
</sourceDesc>

<encodingDesc>

The <encodingDesc> element of the <teiHeader> is used for indicating aspects of the process of encoding the text. Although our testimonia data are "born digital," they nevertheless have certain editorial decisions regarding how they have used data derived from print resources, and the use of web and other standards. Those sorts of details are encoded here.

<editorialDecl>

The first element within an <encodingDesc> is the <editorialDecl>, which indicates editorial decisions regarding how the source documents were handled as well as the use of web and other standards implemented in the encoding of the data. An <editorialDecl> cannot directly contain prose, so a prose description of each editorial decision should be wrapped in a <p> element. For example:

 <editorialDecl>
    <p>Authors of testimonia are identified with URIs from The Virtual International Authority File, see <ref target="http://viaf.org/">http://viaf.org/</ref>. When multiple VIAF URIs exist, preference has been given to VIAF record linked to the Library of Congress authority file.</p>
    <p>Geographic locations are identified with URIs from Pleiades: A Gazetteer of Past Places, see <ref target="https://pleiades.stoa.org/docs">https://pleiades.stoa.org/docs</ref>.</p>
    <p>When possible, textual works have been cited using URNs according to the Distributed Text Services (DTS) system, see <ref target="https://distributed-text-services.github.io/specifications/">https://distributed-text-services.github.io/specifications/</ref>). Additional identifiers have been adopted from the systems used by the Perseus Digital Library (<ref target="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/">http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/</ref>), Syriaca.org (<ref target="http://syriaca.org">http://syriaca.org</ref>), and other relevant authority systems such as WorldCat Identities or OCLC numbers (<ref target="https://www.worldcat.org/">https://www.worldcat.org/</ref>).</p>
    <p>Bibliographic items are identified by a caesarea-maritima.org URI, which is linked, when possible to OCLC numbers and other identifiers.</p>
    <p>Dates have been encoded following the ISO 8601 standard, <ref target="https://www.iso.org/iso-8601-date-and-time-format.html">https://www.iso.org/iso-8601-date-and-time-format.html</ref>, and the best practices established by for the Srophé App, see <ref target="http://srophe.app">http://srophe.app</ref>.</p>
    <p>Languages have been encoded using ISO 639-1, 639-2, and 639-3 codes, following best practices of the TEI guidelines.</p>
</editorialDecl>

<classDecl>

The class declaration contains one or more taxonomies defining any classificatory codes used elsewhere in the text. For testimonia records, named historical periods are classified according to the Caesarea-Maritima.org Chronology, which has been adapted from the The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land for use in Caesarea-Maritima.org publications. This taxonomy is declared in the <classDecl> as a <taxonomy> element with @xml:id="CM-NEAEH". Then follows a description of the taxonomy in a <desc> element, as follows:

<taxonomy xml:id="CM-NEAEH">
    <desc><title>Caesarea-Maritima.org Chronology</title>: This chronology is adapted from the chronology used in <bibl>
        <title level="m">The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land</title>
        <ptr target="https://caesarea-maritima.org/bibl/HG492LV3"/>
        <editor>
            <forename>Ephraim</forename>
            <surname>Stern</surname>
        </editor>
        <editor>
            <forename>Ayelet</forename>
            <surname>Levinzon-Gilbo'a</surname>
        </editor>
        <editor>
            <forename>J.</forename>
            <surname>Aviram</surname>
        </editor>
    </bibl>. This taxonomy is used in the <gi>catRef</gi> encoding to classify the testimonia according to the time period(s) of the events described, rather than the date of composition of the testimonium. For example, Josephus may describe events occurring well before the period of his writing.
    </desc>
...
</taxonomy>

Following the description of the taxonomy, a series of <category> elements defines the allowed values associated with the taxonomy. Each <category> element has an @xml:id attribute which can be referenced by other elements and attributes. <category> elements also contain a <catDesc> element which may contain text describing in human-readable terms what a given <category> element identifies, i.e. what is signified by the @xml:id attribute of the <category> element. For example:

...
<category xml:id="babylonianAndPersian">
    <catDesc>Babylonian and Persian Periods, 585-331 BCE</catDesc>
</category>
<category xml:id="earlyHellenistic">
    <catDesc>Early Hellenistic Period, 331-166 BCE</catDesc>
</category>
<category xml:id="hellenistic">
    <catDesc>Hellenistic Period, 331-36 BCE</catDesc>
</category>

<profileDesc>

The <profileDesc> provides a detailed description of non-bibliographic aspects of a text. In the case of testimonia records, as noted above, the <profileDesc> is the only element within the <teiHeader> that describes the intellectual concept that is the testimonium rather than describing the XML file which represents the testimonium. To that end, the <profileDesc> contains elements which describe the origin of the work from which the testimonium was excerpted, the language of composition, and other ways of classifying the testimonium.

<creation>

The <creation> element details the situational aspects of the testimonium's creation in prose, with essential sub-elements tagged. The following entities should be included in the description of the testimonium's creation and tagged as follows.

The standardized, English title of the work from which the testimonium is excerpted, should be tagged as a <title> element with @level="m" to indicate that the work is monographic, @type="uniform", to indicate that the title is in the standardized form, and a @ref attribute whose value is the work-level CTS-URN for the work from which the testimonium is excerpted. For example:

<title ref="urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0526.tlg001" type="uniform" level="m">Antiquities of the Jews</title>

Using the canonical reference system established for the work, the excerpt which is the testimonium should be cited and tagged with a <ref> element. This reference system should be that used by the edition quoted and cited in the TEI body as a <bibl> element (on which, see below). A @target attribute should point to the @xml:id attribute of the cited <bibl> element. In most cases, this will be the first <bibl> element. So, for "Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 18.55-18.59" (testimonia/10), the cited reference would be:

<ref target="#bib10-1">18.55-18.59</ref>

If known, the author of the work from which the testimonium is excerpted should be identified by a <persName> element with @role="author" and a @ref attribute pointing to the VIAF URI for that person. For example:

<persName ref="http://viaf.org/viaf/22143666" role="author"><name>Flavius</name> <name sort="1">Josephus</name></persName>

Notes: Following the practice of the EpiDoc Guidelines, our schema uses only TEI:name as a child of TEI:persName since the child elements in the TEI (e.g. TEI:forname) are not well suited for Greek or Latin nomenclatures. To facilitate alphabetical sorting and faceting by name, the @sort attribute is used with a value of "1" to indicate the name for sorting purposes.

https://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/ref-att.personal.html

If the author is unknown, simply omit the <persName> element and indicate in the prose that the testimonium was written by "an unknown author".

The date of origin should be identified as precisely as possible. The date should be tagged as <origDate> with a nested <date> element. A human-readable date or date range should be given in the text node of the <date> element, e.g. "93-94 CE". The <origDate> element should contain at least one of the following attributes or attribute pairs, with dates specified according to the ISO 8601 standard: @when, @notBefore and @notAfter, @from and @to. Dates and date ranges should adhere to the guidelines adopted from Syriaca.org. Additionally, the <origDate> element should use a @period attribute to identify the named historical period, or periods, during which the work was composed. The value of the @period attribute should point to the @xml:id values in The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land taxonomy established in the <classDecl> element above. If the specified date range of a given record falls within or across multiple named historical periods, the @period attribute may contain multiple, white-space-separated pointers. (Note that at our request, the TEI Council changed @period to allow it to have "1–∞ occurrences of teidata.pointer separated by whitespace". See https://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/ref-att.datable.html; cf. our discussion and the official TEI feature request.) For example:

<origDate period="#nabateanKingdom #earlyRoman" notBefore="0093" notAfter="0094">
    <date>93 - 94 CE</date>
</origDate>

Finally, the work's place of composition should be identified using an <origPlace> element with a @ref attribute pointing to the Pleiades URI for that place:

<origPlace ref="https://pleiades.stoa.org/places/423025">Rome</origPlace>

So, the <creation> element for "Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 18.55-18.59" (testimonia/10) would look as follows:

<creation>This entry is taken from <title ref="urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0526.tlg001" type="uniform" level="m">Antiquities of the Jews</title> <ref target="#bib10-1">18.55-18.59</ref> written by <persName ref="http://viaf.org/viaf/22143666" role="author">Flavius Josephus</persName> in <origDate period="#nabateanKingdom #earlyRoman" notBefore="0093" notAfter="0094"><date>93 - 94 CE</date></origDate>. This work was likely written in <origPlace ref="https://pleiades.stoa.org/places/423025">Rome</origPlace>.</creation>

<langUsage>

The <langUsage> element describes the languages, sublanguages, registers, dialects, etc. represented within a text. For our purpose, this element records the language in which the testimonium was originally composed. The <langUsage> element should contain t least one <language> element with an @ident attribute whose value is either a two-letter ISO 639-1 or three-letter ISO 639-2 language code. The text node of the <language> element should record the English name of the language associated with the ISO 639 language code. For example:

<langUsage>
    <language ident="grc">Ancient Greek</language>
</langUsage>

<textClass>

The <textClass> element groups information which describes the nature or topic of a text in terms of a standard classification scheme. Testimonia records are first identified here by CTS-URN using the <classCode> element of @scheme="https://distributed-text-services.github.io/specifications/". Within the <classCode> element, the URN is recorded as an <idno> element of @type="URN". The <idno> element should also have an @xml:base attribute whose value is either an API endpoint or URL base which, when concatenated with the URN, returns the excerpted text that is the testimonium, e.g. "https://scaife-cts.perseus.org/api/cts?request=GetPassage&amp;urn=". Currently, the URN used in the <textClass> element is constructed by appending the passage citation of the testimonium to the work-level URN (rather than to the edition or translation level). Note that this practice is subject to change as it does not appear to be supported by all implementations of the DTS API. An example of the <classCode> element from "Luke the Evangelist, Acts 10.1":

<classCode scheme="https://distributed-text-services.github.io/specifications/">
    <idno xml:base="https://scaife-cts.perseus.org/api/cts?request=GetPassage&amp;urn=" type="URN">urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0031.tlg005:10.1</idno>
</classCode>

Testimonia may be identified by one or more <catRef> elements. The <catRef> element takes a @scheme attribute which points to where the taxonomy in use is defined. The @target attribute may then be used to identify a member of that taxonomy which pertains to the testimonia record.

Currently, testimonia only make use of the named historical periods of the The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land taxonomy established in the <classDecl> element above. A <catRef> element refercing one of these periods should have a @scheme attribute of "#CM-NEAEH", pointing to this taxonomy's @xml:id attribute. The @target attribute would then point to the @xml:id attribute of one of the members of the CM-NEAEH taxonomy. It is important to note the distinction that is maintained between the use of the CM-NEAEH taxonomy in the @period attribute of the <origDate> element described above in the <creation> element and its use here in the <catRef> element. Whereas in the @period attribute the referenced taxonomy indicates the named historical period(s) during which the testimonium was composed, the taxonomy in the @target attribute of a <catRef> element indicates that the referenced named historical period is the topic of the testimonium. So, for example, Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews was composed during the Nabatean Kingdom and Early Roman periods (93-94 CE). However, he often describes events that occurred much earlier than the time of his writing, so a testimonium may have as its topic the Late Hellenistic Period. In such a case, the <profileDesc> would be constructed as follows:

<profileDesc>
    <creation>This entry is taken from <title ref="urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0526.tlg001" type="uniform" level="m">Antiquities of the Jews</title> <ref target="#bib10-1">18.55-18.59</ref> written by <persName ref="http://viaf.org/viaf/22143666" role="author">Flavius Josephus</persName> in <origDate period="#nabateanKingdom #earlyRoman" notBefore="0093" notAfter="0094"><date>93 - 94 CE</date></origDate>. This work was likely written in <origPlace ref="https://pleiades.stoa.org/places/423025">Rome</origPlace>.</creation>
    <langUsage>
        <language ident="grc">Ancient Greek</language>
    </langUsage>
    <textClass>
        <classCode scheme="https://distributed-text-services.github.io/specifications/">
            <idno xml:base="http://data.perseus.org/citations/" type="URN">urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0526.tlg001:18.55-18.59</idno>
        </classCode>
        <catRef scheme="#CM-NEAEH" target="#lateHellenistic"/>
    </textClass>
</profileDesc>

<revisionDesc>

The final part of the TEI header is the <revisionDesc> element, which is used to include a detailed log of which changes have been made to this file, when, and by whom. The <revisionDesc> should have a @status attribute which indicates the publication stage of the file. Possible values for this attribute include: “draft,” “incomplete,” “published,” and “underReview”. Each revision is encapsulated in a <change> element, ordered from newest to oldest. The <change> element takes attributes @when and @who which indicate the date of the change and the person who made the change. The value of @when is a date in "yyyy-mm-dd" format, whereas @who will have the value of an @xml:id attribute from "https://caesarea-maritima.org/documentation/editors.xml" - the list of editors. An optional @n attribute whose value is a version number can indicate that this change advanced the version number (given in the <editionStmt> within the <fileDesc> element). The contents of the <change> element describe the revision that was made. A fictional <revisionDesc> for "Luke the Evangelist, Acts 10.1" (testomonia/67) might look as follows:

<revisionDesc status="draft">
    <change who="http://syriaca.org/documentation/editors.xml#srophe-util" when="2020-03-30">CHANGED: Update bibl elements with full citation information from Caesarea-Maritma.org entry.</change>
    <change who="https://caesarea-maritima.org/documentation/editors.xml#wpotter" when="2020-03-09">CREATED: testimonium</change>
</revisionDesc>

Planned Revisions using <change type="planned"> (optional)

In some cases there is work which is planned but not yet completed. In order to leave a note to future editors that some aspect of the markup has not been completed, but is planned, a <change> element is inserted at the beginning of the <revisionDesc> in the <teiHeader> with @type="planned". A @subtype attribute will be used to provide a machine-extractable identification of this planned revision across multiple records.

For example, a plan to tag references to Caesarea with a <placeName> element in a given testimonium record may be encoded as follows:

<change type="planned" subtype="placeNameTags">
	Tag Caesarea with <gi>placeName</gi> tags in excerpts.
</change>

Components of the XML Description of the Testimonium

The following section overviews the types of information used in the XML file to describe the ancient testimonium. Most of these components will reside in the TEI:body, however, as noted above some aspects which describe the conceptual text that is the testimonium will appear in the TEI:profileDesc in the header. No such distinction between elements of the TEI:body and those of the TEI:profileDesc has been made in the following list.

A Caesarea-Maritima.org Testimonium URI describing the intellectual conceptual entity of the testimonium (e.g., caesarea-maritima.org/testimonia/23).

A CTS URN describing the work, including passage reference where applicable, in which the conceptual entity of the testimonium is found (henceforth, the Work).

A standardized title of the Work.

The author of the Work, if known, employing VIAF URIs as per the Testimonia Standards, above.

Date or approximate range of dates of composition of the Work, if known, using the ISO-8601 standard. Date/date range should be encoded for both human and machine reading.

Language in which the Work was originally composed.

Location where the Work was originally composed, if known, identified using Pleiades URIs.

An abstract or brief description of the testimonium. At its most basic, this description will include the place names attested in the testimonium as well as the author, title, and cited section of the Work. For example, “The place names, Καισάρεια and Στράτωνος πύργον are attested in Antiquitates Judaicae, 14.4.4 of Flavius Josephus.”

Place names should be identified using Pleiades URIs; authors should be identified with VIAF URIs, and the title and cited range of the work should be identified with CTS URNs.

The abstract may include more editorial information if required, e.g., “The unnamed port city referred to in Evagrius' Historia ecclesiastica 4.7 is most likely Caesarea Maritima, though scholars dispute this attestation.”

Brief quotations from editions, and where possible translations, of the Work.

Bibliographic citations sourcing the quotations from editions and translations, as well as any other assertions made about the testimonium. These citations should refer to the Caesarea-Maritima.org Bibliography Module.

The CTS URNs identifying the source of the quotations from editions and translations of the Work will have been included in the corresponding record in the bibliography module. Those URNs, however, will only specify to the ‘work id’ level - that is, identifying the text group, work, and edition/translation/exemplar. As such, each bibliographic reference on a testimonium record needs to point to the bibliographic record via Caesarea-Maritima.org Bibliograhy URI (in an empty tei:ptr[@ref=”$biblUri”], and also needs to specify a passage reference as a tei:citedRange[@unit=”CTS-passage”].

Geographic Designations.

For testimonia with a vague association with Palestine, we have used the Pleiades designation "Palestine (region)" instead of estimating the equivalency with the Late Roman Palestines.

Note on Language Codes

Because there is no ISO code for Old Norman, Norman French, or Anglo-Norman, the code for Old French (fro) has been interpreted to include those languages.